A Popular History of The Great War/Volume 1/Page 203

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famous fortress of Przemysl, which required a long siege even with modern artillery to reduce it. Thus in the first three months there was an Austrian invasion of Russia, which was swept back and turned into a Russiar invasion of Galicia ; a Russian invasion of East Prussia, which was hurled back and turned into a Prussian invasion of Russia, which was first blocked on the Niemen, and then pressed back again into East Prussia ; a German rush upon Poland, with Warsaw as its objective, which, quite close to Warsaw, was arrested and hurled back again almost to the Prussian border. And, finally, the Russian successes in Galicia brought practically the whole of that province into Russian occupation.

The Effort of Serbia

AUSTRIA'S declaration of war against Serbia on July 28 /\ found the latter in the midst of a reorganization of her army. Her treasury was depleted and her people were war-weary. In 1913 she had emerged victorious but exhausted from the second Balkan War. The one advantage which she had was that her army of about 250,000 men largely com- posed of seasoned soldiers. Though she had a lar^ge quantity of small arm ammunition she 'was short of rifles, artillery and shells. The frontier between Serbia and Austria was 300 miles long, and the Serbian army could not adequately guard the whole of it. Serbia was unfortunate, too, in the fact that her capital, Belgrade, stood actually on the frontier, at the junction formed bytheDanubewiththeSave, TheAustriangovernmenthad planned what was termed a “punitive expedition" against Serbia. The intention was to make an enveloping movement by four armycorpswithNishastheobjective. Twocorpsweretocross the Danube at Basiasch and Belgrade, while one corps from the north-west was to cross the River Save in the vicinity of Shabatz, and act as a right flank guard to the Austrian advance. A fourth corps, moving from Serajevo on Ushitza, was to turn the flank of any Serbian line of defence, and at the same time, by invading the Novi Bazar district, to separate

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