Aubrey Upham (33351)/Notes

The home of the Lonsdale Battalion 1914-1918
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  • Place names: Where soldiers were born, enlisted and died (or buried) have been listed as it was originally published in Soldiers Died in the Great War 1914-19, Volume 39, The Border Regiment. As a result you may notice some variations in spelling due to a combination of factors including the changes made in the Governmental reform of 1965 and 1974. Some place names changed and some county borders were moved, either enlarging or reducing the historic counties in overall size. It may be possible that a town once belonging to an historic county could now belong to another when the borders of those reformed counties moved.
  • Residence: This is where the individual resided before signing up. All place names typically identify their original, historic counties (contemporary to the War) and may not represent present-day county and metropolitan boundaries (see above).
  • Attachments: A soldier's attachment to or from other unit(s).
  • Transfers: A soldier's transfer to or from other unit(s).
  • Former units: A soldier's previous military unit(s) before serving with the final unit in which he served.
  • Commands held: Refers to commanding officers and the unit(s) they commanded.
  • Theatres: Referring to the large geographical areas, mainly countries, where battles were fought throughout the War: France and Flanders, Italy, Gallipoli, Egypt etc.
  • Battles: A listing of any notable battles or wars in which the individual participated during his years of service.
  • Tactics:
  • Awards or Decorations: These are included if a soldier was awarded, for instance, the Distinguished Conduct Medal. This field is usually left blank although many casualties of the Border Regiment were awarded for conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. This terminology was usually used in awards such as DCM citations. A full list of Distinguished Conduct Medal Citations has been transcribed. Other examples of decoration you will occasionally come across are the Victoria Cross, the Military Cross, Military Medal and the Distinguished Service Order.
  • Medals: The medals a soldier was awarded for certain involvements during the War. These usually had varying, qualifying factors. The main three are the Victory Medal, the British War Medal and the 1914–15 Star.
  • Mentioned in Dispatches: Sometimes shorted to MiD. An individual whose name appeared in an official report, usually written by a superior officer, sent to the high command and detailed the meritorious or gallant action of the individual in the face of the enemy.
  • How died can be somewhat ambiguous, for instance d. simply signifies that the soldier died but does not elaborate any further. This could mean he died as a result of sickness such as dysentry, colitis, pneumonia or malaria etc., or possibly an accidental death. Some soldiers have died from accidental discharge when cleaning their weapon. Two of the main ways soldiers died is killed in action and having died of wounds.
  • Nationality: Where known the nationality will primarily relate to the country in which the individual was born, even if he moved to another country at an early age.
  • Newspapers: Additional information about soldiers could be ascertained from various local newspaper articles and press appreciations. Many soldiers of all ranks were personally named in their local newspapers especially when they published articles pertaining to the missing and dead. Names also appeared when soldiers wrote letters home as a way of reaching out to loved ones and giving thanks for packages of cigarettes and other hard-to-get items at the front. Officers would have been gazetted when, for example, he commissioned or promoted. These are usually sourced in the London and Edinburgh Gazettes and their corresponding supplements.
  • Military abbreviations: Many have been included throughout the site including the soldier remembrance pages. Typically, these abbreviations vary considerably, however, the full term usage is preferred. For example, the rank of Private is used extensively but you may see it abbreviated to Pte. or Pvt. The rank of Sergeant is sometimes spelt the archaic way of Serjeant or Sjt., but this largely depends on the source material. Lance Corporal is almost always abbreviated to L/Cpl. and Company Sergeant Major is simply CSM. There are many more military-based abbreviations, acronyms and initials used extensively throughout the First World War, but you get the point from these few examples.