Blue Cross (chemical warfare)
Blue Cross gas (Blaukreuz): A "Sneezing" gas and chemical warfare agent so called from the standard Blue Cross marking for German artillery shells with a chemical payload. It was introduced by the Germans in 1917. It consisted of diphenylchloroarsine (DA, Clark I), diphenylcyanoarsine (CDA, Clark II), ethyldichloroarsine (Dick), and/or methyldichloroarsine (Methyldick). Clark I and Clark II were the main agents used and affects the upper respiratory tract.
Clark I was used with Green Cross munition earlier; however for the first time it was used as a standalone agent in the night from 10 July to 11 July 1917 at Nieuport, Belgium, during "Operation Strandfest". The artillery munition used as a delivery vehicle contained a large amount of glass spheres closed with a cork and sealed with trinitrotoluene. Later N-ethylcarbazole was added. Depending on the caliber, the munition contained between 7 and 120 kilograms of the agent.
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